A better understanding of the factors that affect the semi-circular edge-notched compressive strength is developed, and the associated failure mode(s) of thermoplastic composite laminates with multidirectional stacking sequences are identified. The primary variables in this investigation are the resin nonlinear shear constitutive behavior, stacking sequence (orientation of plies adjacent to the 0 degree plies), resin-rich regions between the 0 degree plies and the off-axis supporting plies, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength, and initial fiber waviness. Two thermoplastic composite material systems are used in this investigation. The materials are the commercial APC-2 (AS4/PEEK) and a poor interface experimental material, AU4U/PEEK, designed for this investigation. Notched compression specimens are studied at 21, 77, and 132 C. Geometric and material nonlinear two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to model the initiation of fiber microbuckling of both the ideal straight fiber and the more realistic initially wavy fiber. The effects of free surface, fiber constitutive properties, matrix constitutive behavior, initial fiber curvature, and fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength on fiber microbuckling initiation strain levels are considered.